Monkfish, also known as anglerfish, belong to the genus Lophius and are distinguished by their large, flattened heads and wide mouths equipped with sharp teeth. These features make monkfish formidable predators in their underwater habitats.

They employ a unique method of luring their prey by using a modified spine that acts as a fishing rod tipped with a lure-like appendage. Once an unwary victim is drawn close enough, the monkfish snaps its jaws shut, ensnaring its prey. The species within this genus are best known for their culinary value, with a firm texture and a mild taste that is highly prized in the kitchen.

A photo of a monkfish with its mouth wide open. We can see deep into its large mouth which is full of teeth.
The “lure” and mouth of a monkfish I caught.

Distributed mainly across the floors of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, monkfish species have adapted to a life spent largely camouflaged among the seabed, lying in wait for their next meal. The species within this genus vary in size and specific ecological requirements, but all share the common trait of being bottom dwellers.

Conservation status of monkfish species varies, with a focus on sustainable fishery practices and bycatch reduction to maintain healthy populations.

Key Takeaways

  • Monkfish are adept predators with specialized luring abilities.
  • They inhabit various ocean floor environments, primarily in the Atlantic and Mediterranean.
  • Sustainable practices are important for maintaining monkfish populations.

Taxonomy and Classification

Facts: The Monkfish

The taxonomy and classification of monkfish encompass a distinctive group within the order Lophiiformes, which represents the anglerfish. Within this order, monkfish belong to the family Lophiidae and are primarily recognized by their flattened bodies and large, gaping mouths.

Order Lophiiformes

The order Lophiiformes is a diverse group of marine fish known for their unique mode of predation. It includes several families, of which Lophiidae is one. These fish usually have an illicium, a modified fin ray that acts like a fishing rod, tipped with a lure to attract prey.

a monkfish with its mouth wide open and the lure on display.
This is a fully-grown monkfish with a lure on display.

Family Lophiidae

The family Lophiidae features marine fish species commonly referred to as monkfish or goosefish. Members of this family are known for their cryptic appearance and are found in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.

Genera of Monkfish

Monkfish of the family Lophiidae belong to the genus Lophius, which is the type genus for the family. This genus encompasses several notable species, including but not limited to:

Each species within the genus is distinct in its geographical distribution and specific morphological characteristics.

Species Identification

Identifying individual species within the genus Lophius involves examining distinct physical features and distribution. The scientific name of each species provides a unique identifier:

  • Lophius americanus, also known as the American monkfish, is found in the Western Atlantic.
  • Lophius budegassa is typically found in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean.
  • Lophius vaillanti resides in the southern waters off the coast of Africa.
  • Lophius gastrophysus can be found in the western Atlantic, primarily around South America.
  • Lophius litulon, known as the Yellow goosefish, is native to Asian waters.
  • Lophius vomerinus has a presence in the southeastern Atlantic and southwestern Indian Oceans.

Each species is adapted to its unique marine environment, which influences its biological and ecological traits.

Species Profiles

The monkfish genus Lophius consists of several species, each with its distinct geographic range and identifiable features. These benthic fish are known for their wide mouths and unusual appearance, which aids in their predation strategies.

Lophius piscatorius

two Lophius piscatorius laid out. They are of different colors.
Here are some Lophius piscatorius that I caught off the coast of Norway.

Lophius piscatorius, commonly referred to as the European monkfish, can be found in the northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea. They are characterized by their large, flat heads and expandable stomachs capable of swallowing prey as large as their own bodies.

Lophius budegassa

Commonly known as the blackbellied monkfish, Lophius budegassa shares a similar range with its cousin Lophius piscatorius, occupying parts of the northeastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. This species is distinguishable by the color of the belly and fewer dermal spines.

Lophius americanus

The American monkfish, or Lophius americanus, is found along the eastern seaboard of the United States, from the Gulf of Maine to the Chesapeake Bay. Noted for its large mouth and adaptability, it is a commercially significant species often targeted by fisheries.

Lophius litulon

Found predominantly in the northwest Pacific, from Japan to the East China Sea, Lophius litulon is regarded for its capacity to blend into its surroundings, making it an effective ambush predator.

Lophius gastrophysus

Known as the blackfin goosefish, Lophius gastrophysus inhabits the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. With a distinguishable black fin margin, it is less commonly known than other monkfish species.

Lophius vomerinus

The species Lophius vomerinus, the shortspine monkfish, is native to the waters off South Africa. It lives at depths up to 500 meters and has shorter fin rays compared to other members of the Lophius genus.

Habitat and Distribution

Monkfish have a specific habitat preference, largely influenced by the ocean floor’s composition and the water depth. Their presence has been recorded extensively across various zones of the Atlantic Ocean and in other parts of the world.

Atlantic Ocean Zones

Monkfish in the Atlantic Ocean thrive in diverse depths, ranging from the shallow waters of inshore regions to deeper oceanic environments. These fish favor soft substrates, such as sand or mud, which offer effective camouflage from predators and aid in their ambush hunting tactics.

The depths at which they inhabit can vary, with records of their presence from coastlines to several hundred meters deep.

Global Range

Beyond the North Atlantic, monkfish are also found in the Mediterranean Sea and expand to Canada, the United States, and parts of Europe.

Their range extends to African coasts and even to Asian waters near China, Japan, and Korea. Unlike their North Atlantic relatives, some monkfish populations have adapted to the Pacific Ocean‘s unique conditions. This broad global range reflects the species’ adaptability to different marine environments and their ability to thrive in varied underwater landscapes.

Torstein Rottingen


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